Jan. LEO GmbH is a leading provider of online dictionaries for the language pairsEnglish ⇔ German, French ⇔ German, Spanish ⇔ German, Italian. In diesem Jahr liegt einer unserer Schwerpunkte auf der. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'translator' in LEOs English ⇔ German Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.
Leo German VideoCartoons für Kinder. Leo der Lastwagen auf Deutsch.
This one gets about 2. A Spanish —German dictionary with about , entries was introduced on 3 April It gets about 2 million queries each weekday.
An Italian -German was started on 3 April At the time of the public launch, the dictionary contained about , entries and received 77, queries on the first day.
The Chinese —German dictionary was started on the same date as the Italian—German dictionary, 3 April Queries can be entered by using Pinyin , or traditional or simplified characters.
Due to text encoding limitations, the Chinese dictionary cannot be used in the interface. The new dictionary became publicly available on 12 April after a couple of testing days.
It started with 77, entries and received 38, queries on 13 April As the dictionary only went online in the evening it only received 3, queries on its first day.
Today it contains about , entries and receives an average of , queries each weekday. A dictionary for the Portuguese language was announced in early and first launched in January As of September , it contains more than , entries, receiving about , queries each weekday.
In , a Polish-German dictionary was started which contains over 64, entries by September and receives almost 80, queries every weekday. The original aim was to create a single, huge archive by linking up archives run by the different research groups hence its name LEO — Link Everything Online.
The archive was sorted thematically and the different sections organised and kept up to date by archivists. Students developed various services in their free time, in particular the dictionaries.
Some services have been dropped in the course of the spin out. The name of the site is actually a backronym from the name Leo: Following the end of Gilded Leopard study in , the West-German government decided to focus on the Experimentalentwicklung experimental development as feasibility study and to develop new components for upgrading the Leopard 1 and for use on a future main battle tank programme.
The experimental development was contracted to the company Krauss-Maffei, but with the obligation to cooperate with Porsche for the development of the chassis and with Wegmann for the development of the turret.
Two prototypes with differing components were built with the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way that it would match the firepower requirements of the MBT The resulting vehicles were nicknamed Keiler tusker.
The MBT was a revolutionary design, but after large cost overruns and technological problems, Germany withdrew from the project in After unsuccessful attempts of saving the MBT by conceptual changes in order to eliminate the biggest issue—the driver being seated in the turret—it became clear in late that Germany would stop the bi-national development.
The Eber used a modified MBT turret and hull, with the driver being seated in the hull. Only a wooden mock-up was made.
One year later, a choice was made to continue the development based on the earlier Keiler project of the late s, instead of finishing the development of the Eber.
In , the name of the design was determined as Leopard 2 with the original Leopard retroactively becoming the Leopard 1, and Paul-Werner Krapke became the project officer of the Leopard 2 program.
That year 17 prototypes were ordered, but only 16 hulls were built as the production of hull PT12 was cancelled. Ten were ordered initially before another seven were ordered.
To test a larger number of components and concepts, each prototype was fitted with components not found on the other prototypes.
Different types of APUs were mounted in the prototypes. The road wheels were taken from the MBT and the return rollers from the Leopard 1.
The welded turret utilised spaced armour formed by two steel plates. In mid a new turret was designed by Wegmann saving 1.
The turret T14 was modified to test a new armour configuration, taking on a blockier-looking appearance as a result of using vertical modules of spaced multilayer armour.
It was also used to test the new EMES optical rangefinder. The modified turret T14 was designated T14 mod. Schlesinger agreed upon a higher degree of standardization in main battle tanks being favourable to NATO.
By integrating components already fully developed by German companies for the Leopard 2, the costs of the XM1 Abrams , U.
As a result, the modification of the Leopard 2 prototypes in order to meet the US Army requirements was investigated.
Following a number of further talks, a memorandum of understanding MOU was signed on 11 December between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America , which declared that a modified version of the Leopard 2 should be trialled by the USA against their XM1 prototypes,  after the Americans had bought and investigated prototype PT07 in The Leopard 2AV austere version was based on the experiences of the previous Leopard 2 development.
It was created in order to meet the US requirements and the latest protection requirements of the German MoD.
Due to the design and production of the Leopard 2AV taking more time than expected, the shipment to the US and the US evaluation was delayed.
It was not possible to test the Leopard 2AV before 1 September Two new prototype hulls and three turrets were shipped to the US: FMC, after having acquired the licences for production of the Leopard 2AV, decided not to submit a technical proposal, as they saw little to no chance in the US Army adopting a vehicle not developed in the USA.
According to American literature it was discovered, that the Leopard 2AV prototype used for mobility trials was underweight.
In Germany the test conditions were criticised for being unrealistic and favouring the XM1. Instead of using actual performance data, the calculated hypothetical acceleration was used.
The ballistic protection of turret and hull was improved and weak spots were eliminated. The turret bustle containing the ready ammunition racks and the hydraulic systems was separated from the crew compartment and fitted with blow-out panels.
The development of several new components introduced to the Leopard 2 during the Leopard 2AV development and after the US testing was completed.
The EMES system was considered to be the superior solution, but the Hughes system was cheaper and fully developed. The German company Krupp-Atlas-Elektronik acquired the licence of the Hughes design and modified it to meet the needs of the German army.
However driving tests at the WTD 41 revealed a number of drawbacks such as high fuel consumption and the lacking performance of the transmission including the brakes.
In January Germany ordered a small pre-series of three hulls and two turrets which were delivered in These vehicles had increased armour protection on the front of the hull.
One of the hulls was fitted with the earlier turret T21 and was used by the German army school in Munster for troop trials until The first batch consisted of tanks.
The delivery of six tanks was scheduled for , for , for and tanks each following year. The first series tank was delivered on 25 October By the first batch of Leopard 2 tanks was completed.
The first production tanks were fitted with the PzB image intensifier due to production shortages of the new thermal night-sight system, which was later retrofitted to the earlier models.
After the original five batches, three further batches of Leopard 2 tanks were ordered, increasing the amount of Leopard 2 tanks ordered by Germany to a total of 2, The seventh batch of tanks was produced between May and April The last batch for the German army totalling 75 tanks was produced from January to March While previous models only varied in detail, the Leopard 2A4 introduced a digital ballistic computer and an improved fire extinguishing system.
Starting within the sixth batch tanks were fitted with an improved armour array and new side skirts. In the German military procurement agency stated a number of requirements for a future Leopard 2 upgrade.
In , the Kampfwertsteigerung combat potential increasement programme was initiated in Germany with the delivery of first prototypes.
The official military requirements were published in March The base armour of the tank was exchanged and additional armour modules were installed at the turret.
A first batch of Leopard 2 tanks was upgraded to Leopard 2A5 configuration between and , a second batch of followed to In it was decided to cancel due to changes in the political environment.
The funds were redirected to the NGP project of the German army. The Leopard 2A6M was developed with an enhanced mine-protection kit providing protection against mines that can detonate below the hull like mines with bending wire trigger and EFP mines.
The latest version of the tank is the Leopard 2A7, which entered service in a small initial batch of 20 tanks in In April , Welt am Sonntag claimed that tungsten wolfram rounds used in Leopard 2 cannot penetrate the Russian T, nor the modernized version of T They also stated that the German military will develop a new improved round, but it will be exclusively developed for the Leopard 2A7.
Marketing for the new gun was slated to begin in The Leopard 2 first entered service in , and its service life is anticipated to end around In May , the German Ministry of Defence announced plans to develop a tank jointly with France as a successor to both the Leopard 2 and Leclerc tanks.
Technologies and concepts will be investigated to determine what capabilities are needed in a future tank. Germany has fielded about 2, Leopard 2 main battle tanks in various versions, but most of the tanks were sold following the German reunification.
Other countries bought newly or locally built tanks. The Swiss decision was made on 24 August and the funding was subsequently approved by the government in The Leopard 2 became very popular in the s, when the shrinking German army offered many of its redundant Leopard 2s at a reduced price.
But with further non-European orders, the name " Global-Leopard " is now used instead. After investigating the option of a locally developed replacement for the Strv tank, Sweden decided to buy a foreign tank model.
Sweden contracted on 20 June the production of Stridsvagn Swedish Leopard 2A5 subvariant with many components being made locally.
The first Stridsvagn was delivered on 19 December Sweden also leased and later bought a total of Leopard 2A4 tanks in and ; the first vehicle was delivered in February Denmark bought 51 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks after the Danish military school, the Haerens Kampskole , recommended to base the adoption of a new tank on the Swedish army trials.
The tanks were delivered in , but the upgrade to Leopard 2A5 level was already decided. In the Danish army bought another 18 ex-German Leopard 2 tanks.
In , Greece held a competition to determine the main battle tank for the Hellenic army. In March Greece ordered Leopard 2 tanks of which were locally assembled.
Poland received Leopard 2A4 tanks from German army stocks in In Poland ordered a further ex-German Leopard 2s. Finland bought used Leopard 2A4 tanks and six armoured bridge-layer Leopard 2L tanks from Germany in and The tanks served as replacement for the old Soviet-made T and TM1.
The Netherlands resold of their tanks and one turret to Austria , 80 to Canada in ,  another 52 tanks to Norway , 37 to Portugal and finally to Finland.
In , Turkey ordered Leopard 2 tanks from German army stocks. Turkey already wanted to buy 1, Leopard 2 tanks in , but the German government rejected such deal.
Singapore bought 96 Leopard 2 tanks from Germany in Qatar ordered 62 Leopard 2A7 tanks and 24 Panzerhaubitze s in  The delivery of the tanks started in late and the first tanks were displayed on a military parade on 18 December Saudi Arabia has shown interest in buying the Leopard 2 since the s.
However, due to the political circumstances and the questionable situation of human rights in Saudi Arabia , no deal was made.
Saudi Arabia renewed its intention of buying Leopard 2 tanks in The Leopard 2 was also tested by the United Kingdom. In the Leopard 2 was evaluated as possible replacement for the Challenger 1 tank.
More modern versions of the Leopard 2 or M1 Abrams, such as the Leopard 2A6 were not considered due to their higher price.
The vehicles of Panzerbataillon 33 and , were sent from Macedonia to Prizren. They were used for patrols, protecting checkpoints and bases as well as part of the show of force.
On 13 June , two members of the Serbian paramilitary started firing from inside a Lada car at one of the checkpoints in Prizren. A Leopard 2A5 was located at the checkpoint, but it could not participate in the fighting as it was only partially crewed.
The tanks served to protect Bundeswehr logistic sites in Macedonia. Until their return in the Leopard 2 tanks were stationed at the Austrian-Swiss camp "Casablanca".
The Dutch contingent in Bosnia-Hercegovina operated Leopard 2 tanks. However, operational experience in Afghanistan , and in particular during Operation Medusa , convinced the Canadian military of the usefulness of maintaining a tank fleet.
The Canadian government decided to borrow 20 Leopard 2A6s and three armoured recovery vehicles from Germany for rapid deployment to Afghanistan.
It worked as it should. The Danish tank unit, drawn from the first battalion of the Jydske Dragonregiment Jutland Dragoons Regiment ,  was equipped with three tanks and one M armoured personnel carrier , with an armoured recovery vehicle and another tank kept in reserve.
In January , Danish tanks halted a flanking manoeuvre by Taliban forces near the Helmand River by providing gunfire in support of Danish and British infantry from elevated positions.
No one was injured and the tank returned to camp on its own for repairs. Three members of the four-man crew were able to escape even though wounded, but the driver was stuck inside.
On site treatment by Danish medics could not save him. During the same contact with Taliban forces, a second tank was caught in an explosion but none of the crew were wounded.
Turkey operates Leopard 2A4 tanks. Some of the 10 were damaged by IEDs, while the rest were damaged by anti-tank weapons. Turkey also confirmed the use of Leopard 2A4 tanks during the Turkish military operation in Afrin to the German government.
The Leopard 2 uses spaced multilayer armour throughout the design. The armour is a result of extensive research about the formation and penetration mechanism of shaped charge jets.
The side and the rear of the tank protect against heavy machine guns, medium caliber rounds and older types of tank ammunition. The side of the hull is covered by armour skirts to increase protection against projectiles and RPGs.
The frontal third of the hull sides is covered by heavy ballistic skirts, while the rest of the hull sides is covered by steel-reinforced rubber skirts.
In case of a detonation, the blow-off panels on the compartment roofs will direct the explosion and fire away from the crew. They are mounted on most Leopard 2 models, with the exception of Dutch Leopard 2s, which are equipped instead with a Dutch-designed smoke mortar system with six barrels on each side.
The Leopard 2 is equipped with a fire protection system. A modified version of spaced multilayer armour was introduced beginning with the 97th vehicle of the 6th production batch.
The Leopard 2A5 upgrade focused on increased armour protection. While upgrading a Leopard 2 tank to the Leopard 2A5 configuration, the roof covering the armour modules is cut open and new armour modules are inserted.
They have a distinctive arrowhead shape and improve the protection against both kinetic penetrators and shaped charges. The Leopard 2A7 features the latest generation of passive armour and belly armour providing protection against mines and IEDs.
For urban combat, the Leopard 2 can be fitted with different packages of modular armour. Additional armour packages have been developed by a number of different companies.
This upgrade was first presented on the IAV The Leopard 2A4M and 2A6M add an additional mine protection plate for the belly, which increases protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.
The barrel has a chrome lining to increase barrel life. The Leopard 2 is equipped with two machine guns, one mounted co-axially, the other on an anti-aircraft mount.
The standard fire control system found on the Leopard 2 is the German EMES 15 fire control system with a dual magnification stabilised primary sight.
The primary sight has an integrated neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet Nd: The fire control suite is capable of providing up to three range values in four seconds.
The range data is transmitted to the fire control computer and is used to calculate the firing solution. The Leopard 2 has a torsion bar suspension , and has advanced friction dampers.
The running gear consists of seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels and four return rollers per side, with the idler wheel at the front and drive sprocket at the rear.
It can climb vertical obstacles over one metre high. The German Army has prioritised mobility in its Leopard 2, which might be the fastest main battle tank in the world.
The baseline Leopard 2, sometimes informally called the "A0" to differentiate it from later versions, was the first series manufactured version.
The vehicles were manufactured from October until March , altogether vehicles. Two chassis served as driver training vehicles. Deliveries of the 2A1 models started in March and ended in November The two most notable changes were the modification of the ammunition racks to be identical to those in the M1 Abrams, and redesigned fuel filters that reduced refuelling time.
This batch included more minor changes that were later retrofitted to the earlier 2A1s. This designation was given to upgraded vehicles of the first batch of Leopard 2s, brought up to the standard of the second and third batches.
This modernisation gradually replaced the original PZB sights in the first batch with thermal sights for the EMES 15 as they became available.
Furthermore, the upgrade included the fitting of filler openings and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large coverplate to protect the existing NBC protection system.
Finally, the tank was given new five metre towing cables with a different position. The programme began in and ended in ; the third, fourth and fifth batches, which were produced during this period, had the same features.
The modernised first batch can be recognised by the circular plate covering the hole where the cross-wind sensor for the fire-control system was removed.
The fourth batch of vehicles; by Krauss-Maffei Chassis Nr. Even with these minor changes the new batch was known as the 2A3. The Leopard 2s were manufactured in eight batches between and All the older models were upgraded to 2A4 standard.
Until , Germany operated a total of 2, 2A4s newly built and the rest modified older versions , while the Netherlands had an additional tanks.
This version included Swiss-built 7. Switzerland operated Pz 87 tanks. After , Germany and the Netherlands found themselves with large stocks of tanks that they had no need for after the Cold War.
These tanks were sold to NATO or friendly armies around the world. Among these buyers of the surplus tanks were Turkey purchasing vehicles , Greece , Sweden , Chile , Finland , Poland , Austria , Spain , Canada , Singapore 96 , Norway 52 , Denmark 51 , and Portugal The turret roof armour is improved and the smoke grenade launchers redesigned.
Further improvements enhance survivability and combat capability, such as a turret electric drive similar to the Leopard 2A5, a driver rear-view camera, an independent weapons station for the loader, and enhanced command and control systems.
A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilised Mg 64 0. The first 20 were delivered in October ; of which just five were deployed to Afghanistan at the end of and operated until July , when combat operations stopped.
The Leopard 2NG Next Generation is a privately funded Turkish upgrade by Aselsan that includes the application of modular composite armour AMAP , upgraded optics, completely overhauled turret mechanics and a new fire control system on the work since and to be delivered by late , which is intended to be used on the new Altay MBT.
It was developed without an order of the Turkish Army, but might meet the requirements for the modernization of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s. However, in Finland purchased 2A6 vehicles from the Netherlands.
The Leopard 2 hull was also used for the Vickers Mk 7 main battle tank, which featured a British-designed turret, where some of the innovations later were incorporated into the Challenger 2 design.
The Leopard 2 chassis is also larger, thus providing a more stable firing platform for the Marksman turret to operate from. These spaced armour modules defeat a hollow charge prior to reaching the base armour, and causes kinetic-energy penetrators to change direction, eroding them in the process; it does not form a shot-trap , since it does not deflect the penetrators outwards to hit the hull or turret ring.
The gun mantlet was redesigned to accept the new armour. The Leopard 2 Imp was then developed into the A5. There were also some improvements in the main armour composition.
The interior received spall liners to reduce fragments if the armour is penetrated. The frontal "heavy" third of the side skirts was replaced with a stronger type.
Turret controls went all-electric, increasing reliability and crew safety, as well as weight savings. The first A5s were handed over to the German army tank school in and started to enter regular service with Panzerbataillon 33 in December the same year.